The Imprinting Foundation



This project has two parts: (1) Installation and establishment of a bramble barrier about 100 yards in length and (2) imprinter seeding of about 20 acres of pasture. The first is to be accomplished during the spring and summer seasons of 1997 and the second part during the subsequent fall season.

Procedure for Bramble Barrier:

•  Dig furrow (with ridge on lower side) about 8 inches deep to capture rainwater runoff from upslope.

•  Auger 8-inch diameter holes in the bottom of furrow to a depth of 4 feet where third story transplants are to be rooted--space about 15 feet apart.

•  Backfill holes with a 50-50 mix of peat and soil enough for proper transplanting depth.

•  Widen holes at top if needed to fit rootball.

•  Procure potted saplings of a number of species selected from the list of third story plants given in the Appendix.

•  Transplant saplings into prior dug holes grouping them by species for a natural look.

•  Stake and water the transplanted saplings.

•  Auger several holes between each sapling for the second story seedlings. Backfill part way with 50-50 peat & soil mix.

•  Procure potted seedlings of a number of species selected from the list of second story plants given in the Appendix.

•  Transplant seedlings into prior dug holes selecting for species compatibility with the saplings already transplanted.

•  Water transplanted seedlings and stake if necessary.

•  Install seep-hose watering system, connecting it to existing water lines.

•  Water plants when necessary to prevent excessive wilting and to promote rapid growth.

•  Scatter a mixture of seeds (selecting the species from the list of first story plants given in the Appendix) along the furrow and downslope ridge.

•  Scatter finely divided straw mulch to a one-inch depth onto the furrow and ridge.

•  Cover the furrow and ridge with woody prunings to discourage herbivory by rodents and birds.

•  Check developmental progress of bramble barrier weekly making adjustments in the system where needed.

Procedure for Imprinter Seeding:

•  Divide each pasture in half with a low dike constructed on the contour using a border disk.

•  Make another low dike along the lower edge of each pasture in the same way.

•  Procure seed of a number of species selected from the lists of plants given in the Appendix for first and second stories.

•  Mix seed with an equal volume of wheat bran and fill seed hopper on demonstration land imprinter.

Note: Seed mix should include cool season annuals to serve as a cover crop for erosion control, imprint stabilization, nurse crop and green manure. Species such as annual ryegrass, schismus and plantago work well in the cover crop role in southern Arizona .

5. Imprint areas by going around the outside and working toward the center. Rip to soften the soil before imprinting if necessary for adequate penetration of imprinting teeth.

6. Monitor the development of the plant community for two years following imprinting.

7. Reseed areas with thin stands of seedlings.

Estimated Costs:

•  Bramble Barrier

Plants & seeds ................................................... $2,000

Labor, equipment & supplies ..................................$2,000


•  Imprinter Seeding

Seeds ............................................................... $2,000

Labor, equipment & supplies ......................... .........$2,000

..............................................    Total                                       $8,000


Note: The foregoing estimates are based on the specifications--

•  10 to 15 gal saplings for the third story trees

•  5 gal seedlings for the second story shrubs

•  1 gal seedlings for the first story half shrubs

•  diverse seed mixes including early, mid & late successional species

•  seeding rates of 12 to 15 pounds per acre

These specifications can be scaled down, but at the expense of a slower response to the land treatments.


Stories of Vegetation: First Story (forbs and grasses), Second Story (half shrubs and shrubs), Third Story (trees)


First Story: Forbs & Grasses: F=Forb, G=Grass, W=Warm season, C=Cool season, L=Legume, A=Annual, P=Perennial, B=Biennial,  "/" = or

** Sunflower (F,W,A) * Six-weeks grama (G,W,A)

* Plantago (F,C,A) Slender grama (G,W,P)

* Schismus (G,C,A) * Blue panicum (G,W,P)

** Penstemon (F,C,P) ** Johnson grass (G,W,P)

Wild mustard (F,C,A) ** Millet (G,W,A)

* Annual ryegrass (G,C,A) ** Wheat (G,C,A)

** Globe mallow (F,C,A/P) ** Oats (G,C,A)

* Desert marigold (F,C,P) ** Barley (G,C,A)

** Purple aster (F,W,P) ** Rye (G,C,A)

Amaranth (F,W,A) ** Grain sorghum (G,W,A/P)

** AZ poppy (F,C,A) * Wilman lovegrass (G,C/W,P)

** AZ lupine (F,C,L,AP) ** Owl's clover (F,C,A)

Vine milkweed (F,W,P) Devil's claw (F,W,P)

** Buffalo gourd (F,W,P) ** Tanglehead (G,W,P)

** Sideoats grama (G,W,P) ** Plains bristlegrass (G,W,P)

* Pappas grass (G,W,P) Alkali sacaton (G,W,P)

* Lehmann lovegrass (G,C/W,P) * Boers lovegrass (G,C/W,P)

* Cochise lovegrass (G,C/W,P) * Purple three-awn (G,W,P)

* Sand dropseed (G,W,P) ** Buffelgrass (G,W,P)

Yellow sweetclover (F,W,L,B) * Burclover (F,C,L,A)

Wildoats (G,C,A) * Bermudagrass (G,W.))

Natal redtop (G,C/W,P) Bushmuhly (G,W,P)

** Sprucetop grama (G,W,P) * Needle grama (G,W,P)

** Red brome (G,C,A) * Cane bluestem (G,W,P)

* AZ cottontop (G,W,P) ** Feather fingergrass (G,W,A)

* Rothrock grama (G,W,P)


Second Story: Half Shrubs & Shrubs:

S=Shrub, T=Tree, H=Halfshrub, E=Evergreen, D=Deciduous, L=Legume,  "/" = or

* Yellow bird of paradise (S,D,L) * Cassias (S,E,L)

* Texas ranger (S,E) * Four-wing saltbush (S,E)

* Desert saltbush (S,E) ** Desert hackberry (S,D)

** Quailbush (S,E) ** Graythorn (S,E/D)

* Wolfberry (S,E/D) ** Desert broom (S,E)

** Burroweed (H,E/D) ** Bursage (H,E)

** Fairyduster (H,D,L) * Creosote bush (S,E)

** Tree tobacco (S,E) ** Desert smoketree (S,D)

* Catclaw acacia (S/T,D,L) * Whitethorn acacia (S/T,D,L)

* Brittlebush (H,E) * Desert mallow (H,E)

* Mexican paloverde (S,E/D,L)


Third Story: Trees: T=Tree, E=Evergreen, D=Deciduous, S=Shrub, L=Legume,  "/" = or

* Eucalyptus (T,E) * Rhus lancea (T,E)

** Desert willow (T/S,D) ** Mexican paloverde (T/S,E/D,L)

* Aleppo pine (T,E) ** Canyon hackberry (T,D)

** Chinaberry (T,D) Cottonwood (T,D)

** Catclaw acacia (T/S,D,L) ** Arizona ash (T,D)

* Honey mesquite (T,E/D,L) * California pepper (T,E)

* Blue paloverde (T/S,D,L) ** Salt cedar (T/S,E)

*Olive (T,E) * Argentine mesquite ) (T,E/D,L)  (Colorado variety)



•  The foregoing listings are based on the Imprinting Foundation's first-hand experience with each plant species for use in the Tucson area under irrigated and dryland     conditions.

•  One star ( * ) preceding a species indicates our first choice, whereas two stars ( ** ) signifies the second choice.

•  Usually we select the first choice species for use in a project if available after considering the cost & quality of the plant material and special preferences of the client. When     these considerations can't be met, we go to the second-choice species for selection of comparable plant material.

•  Unstarred species have rankings of third or fourth choice.

•  Species for the bramble barrier are given in all three listings, whereas species for the pasture seed mix are in the first and second story lists; i.e., no trees.          next page

The Imprinting Foundation
1616 E. Lind Road
Tucson, AZ 85719

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